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Everett Brown
Everett Brown

Learn Music Theory in Practice Grade 1 with this PDF Guide and Video Course


Music Theory in Practice Grade 1 PDF Download




Music theory is the study of how music works. It helps you understand the elements of music, such as melody, harmony, rhythm, form and style. Music theory also helps you develop your musical skills, such as reading music notation, playing by ear, composing and improvising.




music theory in practice grade 1 pdf download


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If you want to learn music theory online, there are many resources available for you. You can find websites, videos, podcasts, apps and books that teach you music theory in an easy and fun way. However, if you want to follow a structured and comprehensive course that covers all the essential topics of music theory for beginners, you might want to check out the ABRSM Music Theory in Practice series.


The ABRSM (The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music) is an organization that provides exams and qualifications for music learners around the world. The ABRSM Music Theory in Practice series is a set of workbooks that prepare you for the ABRSM Theory of Music Exams from Grade 1 to Grade 8. Each workbook contains a clear explanation of music notation, many worked examples and practice exercises, definitions of important words and concepts, specimen exam questions and helpful tips for students.


In this article, we will focus on the Music Theory in Practice Grade 1 workbook, which is the best way to start your music theory journey. We will give you an overview of what you will learn in this workbook, and how you can download the PDF version for free. By the end of this article, you will have a solid foundation of music theory knowledge that will help you enjoy and appreciate music more.


Music Notation




The Staff and Clefs




Music notation is a system of symbols that represent sounds. The most basic symbol is the note, which shows the pitch and duration of a sound. Notes are written on a set of five horizontal lines called the staff (or stave). The staff has four spaces between the lines, and each line and space represents a different pitch.


To know which pitch each line and space represents, we need to use a sign called a clef at the beginning of the staff. The most common clefs are the treble clef and the bass clef. The treble clef is used for high-pitched instruments and voices, such as the violin, flute, guitar and soprano. The bass clef is used for low-pitched instruments and voices, such as the cello, tuba, piano and bass.


The treble clef looks like a stylized G, and it curls around the second line from the bottom of the staff. This line represents the note G above middle C (G4). The bass clef looks like a stylized F, and it has two dots around the second line from the top of the staff. This line represents the note F below middle C (F3).


To identify the notes on the staff, we use the letters A to G in alphabetical order. We can also use mnemonics to help us remember them. For example, for the lines of the treble clef, we can use "Every Good Boy Deserves Fruit", and for the spaces, we can use "FACE". For the lines of the bass clef, we can use "Good Boys Deserve Fruit Always", and for the spaces, we can use "All Cows Eat Grass".


Note Values and Rests




Notes have different shapes and names depending on their duration. The longest note value in common use is the semibreve (or whole note), which lasts for four beats. The semibreve looks like an empty oval. Half of a semibreve is a minim (or half note), which lasts for two beats. The minim looks like an empty oval with a stem. Half of a minim is a crotchet (or quarter note), which lasts for one beat. The crotchet looks like a filled oval with a stem. Half of a crotchet is a quaver (or eighth note), which lasts for half a beat. The quaver looks like a filled oval with a stem and a flag. Half of a quaver is a semiquaver (or sixteenth note), which lasts for a quarter of a beat. The semiquaver looks like a filled oval with a stem and two flags.


Rests are symbols that show silence in music. They have different shapes and names depending on their duration, just like notes. The longest rest value in common use is the semibreve rest (or whole rest), which lasts for four beats. The semibreve rest looks like a thick horizontal line hanging from the second line from the top of the staff. Half of a semibreve rest is a minim rest (or half rest), which lasts for two beats. The minim rest looks like a thick horizontal line sitting on the third line from the bottom of the staff. Half of a minim rest is a crotchet rest (or quarter rest), which lasts for one beat. The crotchet rest looks like a squiggly line that goes down from the fourth line from the bottom of the staff to below it. Half of a crotchet rest is a quaver rest (or eighth rest), which lasts for half a beat. The quaver rest looks like a squiggly line that goes up from below the staff to above it. Half of a quaver rest is a semiquaver rest (or sixteenth rest), which lasts for a quarter of a beat. The semiquaver rest looks like two squiggly lines that go up from below the staff to above it.


Time Signatures




Time signatures are signs that show how many beats are in each bar (or measure) of music, and what kind of note gets one beat. Time signatures are written as two numbers at the beginning of each staff, after the clef.


Time Signatures




Time signatures are signs that show how many beats are in each bar (or measure) of music, and what kind of note gets one beat. Time signatures are written as two numbers at the beginning of each staff, after the clef.


The lower number of the time signature tells you what kind of note gets one beat. For example, if the lower number is 4, it means that a crotchet (or quarter note) gets one beat. If the lower number is 8, it means that a quaver (or eighth note) gets one beat.


The upper number of the time signature tells you how many beats are in each bar. For example, if the upper number is 2, it means that there are two beats in each bar. If the upper number is 3, it means that there are three beats in each bar.


There are two main types of time signatures: simple and compound. In simple time signatures, each beat can be divided into two equal parts. In compound time signatures, each beat can be divided into three equal parts.


In simple time signatures, the upper number is usually 2, 3 or 4. For example, 2/4 means that there are two crotchet beats in each bar. 3/4 means that there are three crotchet beats in each bar. 4/4 means that there are four crotchet beats in each bar.


In compound time signatures, the upper number is usually 6, 9 or 12. For example, 6/8 means that there are two dotted crotchet beats in each bar, and each dotted crotchet can be divided into three quavers. 9/8 means that there are three dotted crotchet beats in each bar. 12/8 means that there are four dotted crotchet beats in each bar.


Here is a table that shows some common simple and compound time signatures and their names:


Time Signature Name Example --- --- --- 2/4 Simple duple March 3/4 Simple triple Waltz 4/4 Simple quadruple Rock 6/8 Compound duple Jig 9/8 Compound triple Slip jig 12/8 Compound quadruple Blues Pitch




The Keyboard and Accidentals




Pitch is the highness or lowness of a sound. To measure pitch, we use a musical instrument called the keyboard. The keyboard has a series of white and black keys that produce different pitches when pressed.


The white keys on the keyboard are named after the first seven letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E, F and G. These letters repeat over and over again on the keyboard. The black keys on the keyboard are named after the white keys next to them, but with an extra sign called an accidental. There are two types of accidentals: sharps and flats.


A sharp (#) raises the pitch of a white key by a semitone (or half step). For example, C# is the black key to the right of C. A flat (b) lowers the pitch of a white key by a semitone. For example, Db is the black key to the left of D.


Sometimes, two different names can refer to the same pitch on the keyboard. For example, C# and Db are both names for the same black key. These names are called enharmonic equivalents. Enharmonic equivalents sound the same but are written differently.


Intervals




An interval is the distance between two pitches. To measure an interval, we use two things: a number and a quality.


The number of an interval tells us how many staff positions (lines and spaces) are between the two notes. For example, if we have two notes on adjacent lines or spaces, we have an interval of a second. If we have two notes on alternate lines or spaces, we have an interval of a third. If we have two notes on every other line or space, we have an interval of a fourth. And so on.


The quality of an interval tells us how many semitones (or half steps) are between the two notes. For example, if we have two notes that are a second apart, but they are both white keys, we have a major second, which has two semitones. If we have two notes that are a second apart, but one of them is a black key, we have a minor second, which has one semitone.


There are four main types of interval qualities: major, minor, perfect and diminished. Major and minor intervals are used for seconds, thirds, sixths and sevenths. Perfect intervals are used for unisons, fourths, fifths and octaves. Diminished intervals are used when a major or perfect interval is lowered by one semitone.


Here is a table that shows some common intervals and their names:


Interval Name Example --- --- --- C to C Perfect unison Same note C to Db Minor second Jaws theme C to D Major second Happy Birthday C to Eb Minor third Greensleeves C to E Major third When the Saints Go Marching In C to F Perfect fourth Here Comes the Bride C to Gb Diminished fifth The Simpsons theme C to G Perfect fifth Twinkle Twinkle Little Star C to Ab Minor sixth The Entertainer C to A Major sixth My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean C to Bb Minor seventh Somewhere from West Side Story C to B Major seventh Take On Me by A-ha C to C' Perfect octave Somewhere Over the Rainbow Scales and Key Signatures




A scale is a series of notes that go up or down in pitch by a certain pattern. Scales are used to create melodies and harmonies in music. There are many types of scales, but the most common ones are major and minor scales.


A major scale is a scale that has a bright and happy sound. It has eight notes that follow this pattern of whole steps (W) and half steps (H): W-W-H-W-W-W-H. For example, the C major scale has these notes: C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C.


A minor scale is a scale that has a dark and sad sound. It has eight notes that follow different patterns depending on the type of minor scale. There are three types of minor scales: natural minor, harmonic minor and melodic minor.


A natural minor scale is a scale that follows this pattern: W-H-W-W-H-W-W. For example, the A natural minor scale has these notes: A-B-C-D-E-F-G-A.


A harmonic minor scale is a scale that raises the seventh note by one semitone. It follows this pattern: W-H-W-W-H-W+H-H. For example, the A harmonic minor scale has these notes: A-B-C-D-E-F-G#-A.


A melodic minor scale is a scale that raises the sixth and seventh notes by one semitone when going up, but lowers them back when going down. It follows this pattern: W-H-W-W-W-W-H when going up, and W-W-H-W-W-H-W when going down. For example, the A melodic minor scale has these notes: A-B-C-D-E-F#-G#-A when going up, and A-G-F-E-D-C-B-A when going down.


A key signature is a sign that shows which notes in a scale are sharped or flatted. Key signatures are written as a series of sharps or flats at the beginning of each staff, after the clef and before the time signature.


To find the key signature of a major scale, we can use this rule: The last sharp in the key signature is the seventh note of the scale. The last flat in the key signature is the fourth note of the scale.


For example, if we have a key signature with one sharp (#), it means that the last sharp is F#. F# is the seventh note of the G major scale, so the key signature is G major. If we have a key signature with two flats (bb), it means that the last flat is Bb. Bb is the fourth note of the Eb major scale, so the key signature is Eb major.


To find the key signature of a natural minor scale, we can use this rule: The key signature of a natural minor scale is the same as the key signature of its relative major scale. The relative major scale is the major scale that starts on the third note of the natural minor scale.


Terms and Signs




Italian Terms




Italian terms are commonly used in music notation to instruct performers on how to play a piece of music. First used by 17th-century Italian composers, the terminology has since spread to the rest of the world. Here are some of the most common Italian terms and their meanings:


Term Meaning --- --- adagio slowly allegro fast andante at a walking pace crescendo gradually louder diminuendo gradually softer forte loud piano soft legato smoothly staccato detached accelerando gradually faster ritardando gradually slower a tempo resume previous tempo da capo from the beginning dal segno from the sign fine end coda tail, an ending section fermata hold, pause on a note or rest sforzando suddenly accented trill rapid alternation of two notes Musical Signs




Musical signs are symbols that show various aspects of music notation, such as repeats, endings, pauses, ornaments and directions. Here are some of the most common musical signs and their meanings:


Sign Name Meaning --- --- --- :: or : : repeat sign repeat the section between the signs 1., 2. or 3. etc. above the bar line first ending, second ending etc. play different endings for each repeat : : with D.C. al Fine or D.S. al Fine above it da capo al fine or dal segno al fine go back to the beginning or the sign and play until fine (end) : : with D.C. al Coda or D.S. al Coda above it and a coda sign (O) later in the music da capo al coda or dal segno al coda go back to the beginning or the sign and play until the coda sign, then jump to the coda section at the end (above a note or rest) fermata or pause hold the note or rest longer than its normal value (above a note) or tr (above a note) with a wavy line following it turn or gruppetto play the note above, the main note, the note below and the main note again quickly (above a note) or mordent (above a note) with a short line through it mordent or pralltriller play the main note, the note above and the main note again quickly (above a note) with a short line through it or inverted mordent (above a note) without a line through it inverted mordent or mordent pralltriller play the main note, the note below and the main note again quickly (above a note) with one or more accidentals before it acciaccatura or crushed note play the accented note very quickly before the main note (above a note) without any accidentals before it appoggiatura or leaning note play the accented note for half of the main note's value and then move to the main note Performance Directions




Performance directions are words or symbols that tell performers how to play or sing a piece of music. They can include information about the instruments, voices, transposition and pitch of the music. Here are some of the most common performance directions and their meanings:


Direction Meaning --- --- a cappella without accompaniment a due (a2) for two players or voices arco with the bow (for string instruments) col legno with the wood of the bow (for string instruments) con sordino with mute (for brass or string instruments) divisi divided (for two or more parts on one staff) glissando sliding from one note to another pizzicato plucked (for string instruments) senza sordino without mute (for brass or string instruments) solo for one player or voice soli for a small group of players or voices tacet silent (for a part or section) tutti all together (for a large group of players or voices) 8va play an octave higher than written 8vb play an octave lower than written Rhythm




Ties and Dots




Ties and dots are symbols that modify the duration of notes and rests. They can extend the value of a note or rest by adding fractions of its original value.


A tie is a curved line that connects two notes of the same pitch. It means that the two notes are played as one continuous sound. The duration of the tied note is equal to the sum of the individual notes. For example, a crotchet tied to a quaver is equal to three quavers.


A dot is a small point that is placed after a note or rest. It means that half of the original value is added to the note or rest. For example, a dotted crotchet is equal to three quavers. A double dot is two points placed after a note or rest. It means that three quarters of the original value is added to the note or rest. For example, a double dotted crotchet is equal to seven semiquavers.


Triplets




A triplet is a group of three notes that are played in the time of two notes of the same value. For example, a triplet of quavers is played in the time of two quavers. A triplet is indicated by a number 3 above or below the notes, and sometimes by a bracket as well.


Triplets are used to create rhythmic variety and interest in music. They can also be used to divide a beat into three equal parts, especially in compound time signatures. For example, in 6/8 time, each dotted crotchet beat can be divided into three quavers by using triplets.


Grouping Notes and Rests




Grouping notes and rests is a way of organizing them according to the time signature and the beat. Grouping notes and rests helps to show where the strong and weak beats are in each bar, and makes the music easier to read and play.


Notes and rests can be grouped by using beams, flags and rests. Beams are horizontal lines that connect the stems of notes that are shorter than a crotchet (such as quavers and semiquavers). Flags are hooks that are attached to the stems of single notes that are shorter than a crotchet. Rests are symbols that show silence in music.


The rules for grouping notes and rests vary depending on the time signature and whether it is simple or compound. In general, these are some guidelines to follow:


  • In simple time signatures, notes and rests should be grouped according to each crotchet beat and its subdivisions.



  • In compound time signatures, notes and rests should be grouped according to each dotted crotchet beat and its subdivisions.



  • Notes and rests should not cross bar lines or middle points of bars.



  • Notes and rests should not be grouped in such a way that obscures the beat or creates confusion.



  • Notes and rests should be grouped consistently throughout the piece.



Conclusion




In this article, we have learned about the basics of music theory in practice grade 1. We have covered the topics of music notation, pitch, rhythm, terms and signs, and performance directions. We have also learned how to identify and write notes, rests, intervals, scales, key signatures, time signatures, ties, dots, triplets,


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